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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Clay Formations: 40 Years of RD&D in the Belgian URL HADES

Product Code: SP536
Series: GSL Special Publications - print copy
Author/Editor: Edited by X.L. Li, M. Van Geet, C. Bruggeman, M. De Craen
Publication Date: 01 September 2023
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Special Publication 536

As part of research into the geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, the HADES underground research laboratory (URL) was constructed in a clay formation in the early 1980s. This was the world's first purpose-built URL in a deep clay formation. Over the past four decades, the HADES URL has played an important role in the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) of geological disposal. It enabled the in situ characterization of the clay host rock, it allowed experiments to be performed under realistic geological conditions and it demonstrated the feasibility of constructing, operating and closing underground repositories. This volume presents several key contributions of the HADES URL to both Belgian and international research into geological disposal. It not only compiles some important RD&D results, but also illustrates the essential role URLs such as the HADES URL have played in developing concepts for the geological disposal of radioactive waste.

Published online on the Lyell Collection 25 August 2023. The online content for this title is Open Access.

Type: Book
Ten Digit ISBN:
Thirteen Digit ISBN: 9781786205933
Publisher: GSL
Binding: Hardback
Pages: 336
Weight: 0.95 kg



Van Geet, M., Bruggeman, C. and De Craen, M. Geological disposal of radioactive waste in deep clay formations: celebrating 40 years of RD&D in the Belgian URL HADES

Supporting ONDRAF/NIRAS’ safety statements

De Craen, M., Moors, H., Honty, M. and Van Geet, M. The role of the HADES URL in better understanding of the Boom Clay pore water geochemistry

Li, X., Dizier, A., Chen, G., Verstricht, J. and Levasseur, S. Forty years of investigation into the thermo-hydromechanical behaviour of Boom Clay in the HADES URL

Chen, G., Li, X., Dizier, A., Verstricht, J., Sillen, X. and Levasseur, S. Characterization of Boom Clay anisotropic THM behaviour based on two heating tests at different scales in the HADES URL

Jacops, E., Yu, L., Chen, G. and Levasseur, S. Gas transport in Boom Clay: the role of the HADES URL in process understanding

Kursten, B., Caes, S., de Souza, V. and Gaggiano, R. Lessons learned from in situ corrosion experiments in the HADES URL

Aertsens, M., Weetjens, E., Govaerts, J., Maes, N. and Brassinnes, S. CP1 and Tribicarb-3D: unique long-term and large-scale in situ migration tests in Boom Clay at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory

Govaerts, J., Maes, N., Durce, D., Aertsens, M. and Brassinnes, S. Coupled flow and transport modelling of a large-scale in situ migration experiment with 14C-labelled natural organic matter colloids in Boom Clay

Supporting ONDRAF/NIRAS’ feasibility statements

Li, X., Neerdael, B., Raymaekers, D. and Sillen, X. The construction of the HADES underground research laboratory and its role in the development of the Belgian concept of a deep geological repository

Dizier, A., Scibetta, M., Armand, G., Zghondi, J., Georgieva, T., Chen, G., Verstricht, J., Li, X., Léonard, D. and Levasseur, S. Stability analysis and long-term behaviour of deep tunnels in clay formations

Verstricht, J., Nackaerts, D., Li, X. L., Leonard, D., Levasseur, S. and Van Geet, M. Assessment of long-term sensor performance based on a large THM experiment in the HADES URL

Supporting international RD&D programmes

Hassine, S. B. H., Davies, C. and Garbil, R. Forty-five years of joint research programmes on geological disposal of radioactive waste and the pioneering role of the HADES Underground Research Laboratory

Armand, G., Plas, F., Talandier, J., Dizier, A., Li, X. L. and Levasseur, S. Contribution of HADES URL to the development of the Cigéo project, the French industrial centre for geological disposal of high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in a deep clay formation

Nussbaum, C., Bernier, F., Bleyen, N., Bossart, P., Bruggeman, C., De Cannière, P., Fierz, T., Jaeggi, D., Neerdael, B., Valcke, E. and Volckaert, G. 25 years of cross-fertilization between HADES and Mont Terri rock laboratory

Bernier, F. J., Detilleux, V., Lemy, F., Pochet, G. M., Surkova, M., Volckaert, G. and Mommaert, C. Underground research laboratories, an important support to the Belgian Regulatory Body’s Research and Development programme and the management of uncertainties

Mayer, S. J., Van Marcke, P., Jung, H., Thompson, P. and Acharya, G. Important roles of underground research laboratories for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes: an international perspective


Geysmans, R., Silvikko De Villafranca, M. and Meskens, G. Making the future in the present: using Science and Technology Studies to reflect on 40 years of research in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory



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